20th January 2021

importance of livelihood diversification

The findings underscore the importance of human capital investment and related support services for improving the pastoralist capacity to manage risk through welfare-enhancing diversified income portfolio adoption. The single most important activity is trading, while labouring for others is also important. Migration and Development, 1, 37–41. (2020). The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. (Unpublished). Economic Development and Cultural Change, 36(3), 465–481. an evaluation of five income generating projects in tembisa sustainable livelihood approaches: the future for income generating projects in urban areas? The importance of livelihood diversification activities in improving economic condition of rural farmers of the two communities is studied. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems. With respect to ecosystem-based livelihoods, there is more household participation in fishing and seaweed farming, but it varies from village to village. Article  Bernados, S., Jr. (2019). 153–177). Migration and sustainable livelihoods: A critical review of the literature. Several issues have received attention during the late nineties, when various studies verifying the diversity of rural livelihood strategy Pramanik, S., Deb, U., & Bantilan, C. (2014). Migration, remittances, and the family. Hunter, L. M. (2005). Decisions on livelihood strategies may invoke natural-resource based activities, non-natural resource based and off-farm activities, migration and remittances, pensions and grants, intensificationversus diversification,and short-term versus long-term outcomes, some of which may compete. (2014). Sustainable livelihoods and livelihood diversification. According to (12), diversification contributes positively to livelihood sustainability because it reduces proneness to stress and shocks. The Dynamics of Livelihood Diversification in Ethiopia Revisited: Evidence from Panel data. A sizeable number of rural households in South Africa work two or more jobs to generate more income. Asian Profile, 47(3), 195–219. Climate change and migration: A case study from rural Bangladesh. (2020). Masud-All-Kamal, M. (2013). The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. First, let’s listen as Tim explains Livelihood Diversification… This is a natural starting point for poor rural producers with low levels of capital, who may be able to restructure their production mix more easily than to … This paper sets out to explore the links between livelihood diversification and access to natural resources, and it does this bearing in mind the need to make micro-macro policy links between local level rural livelihoods and national level poverty reduction efforts represented by Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). (2020). 34. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(27), 9780–9785. 114–116). The possibilities of bush fallows with changing roles of agriculture—An analysis combining remote sensing and interview data from Sudanese drylands. Results from a household survey show that participation in fishing is common and positively associated with higher occupational diversity and more agricultural activities. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Livelihood diversification in the rural areas of the developing world got importance in the literature and research since the 1990s with the introduction of the livelihood frameworks. Rahman, S., Barmon, B. K., & Ahmed, N. (2011). Keeping them in their place’: The ambivalent relationship between development and migration in Africa. The relationship between fishing, livelihood diversification and poverty was investigated in the lower Mekong basin, in Laos, where fishing forms an important, but usually secondary part of rural livelihoods. Ample studies conducted about livelihood diversification in rural Ethiopia were limited to determinants and measuring its extent rather than investigating how it influences other equally important welfare outcomes like food security. (2002). Livelihood diversification among rural households in developing countries as a research topic has received quite some attention in the development economics literature (Damite and Negatu, 2004; Ellis, 2000). (2008). Carling, J. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Asian Journal of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities, 3(7), 165–180. The result generated through review may be important for development practitioners, researchers and policy makers. The effects of climate change on agriculture and poverty in coastal Bangladesh. (2000a) livelihood diversification is a process by which ... 2001). Finally, the study highlighted the importance of continued commitment on the part of policy-makers and local administrators to support the development of non-farm and off-farm livelihood sources through availing credit services, skill training and, above all, educating the community. Mertz, O., Mbow, C., Reenberg, A., & Diouf, A. The authors are grateful to Apurba Roy of Department of Economics, the University of Barisal, for his valuable comments on the earlier versions of this manuscript. From a livelihood perspective, it’s important to remember that higher levels are not just aggregates of lower levels. (2012). The diversity of rural livelihoods in low income developing countries is receiving increased attention in discussions about rural poverty reduction. 2. Environmental Management, 43(5), 804–816. Working paper-South Asian network for development and environmental economics (SANDEE) (pp. Joshi, P. K., Gulati, A., Birthal, P. S., & Tewari, L. (2004). Thisstudy focused on analyse of livelihood diversification by farming households in Kachia, Kagarko and Jaba Local Government areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Read "Livelihood diversification: increasing in importance or increasingly recognized? Stark, O. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (2011). World Development Perspectives, 13, 1–9. Aryal, J. P., Rahut, D. B., Maharjan, S., & Erenstein, O. Furthermore, fisheries and tourism are the most important sectors, and offer more opportunities to generate higher income for households. (1997). ‘The war whose bullets you don't see’: Diamond digging, resilience and Ebola in Sierra Leone. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 4(1), 35–40. Marine Policy, 43, 208–216. Liu, H. (2018). Farmers’ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Gender & Development, 19(1), 23–38. Subscription will auto renew annually. Mistri, A., & Das, B. Environ Dev Sustain (2020). de Haas, H. (2010). In conclusion we consider private and public investment flows into the RNFE and the need for state intervention to support ideals of spatially equitable growth. Authors are thankful to Mr. Palash Mallick and Mr. Biplob Das for their hard work during the field survey, and also Md. Farming, small-scale mining and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa: A critical overview. Politics and Policies in Upper Guinea Coast Societies. Bennet, K., Bilak, A., Bullock, N., Cakaj, L., & Clarey, M. (2017). Migration and development: A theoretical perspective. Livelihood diversification has long been recognized as a risk management strategy and source of resilience. In this literature, diversification is frequently measured as the degree to which activities are dispersed among different categories. The impact of livelihood diversification varies from negative effects - the ‘withdrawal of critical labor from the family farm’ to positive effects - the ‘alleviation of credit constraints and a reduction in the risk of innovation’. Numerical simulation of marine internal wave dynamics based on functional analysis. Goswami, M., & Nautiyal, S. (2020). However, identification of the factors that determine households’ choice of livelihood strategies of pastoralists has received little attention. Migration and development migration and development in low-income countries: A role for destination country policy? The concept revolves around resources such as land/property, crops, food, knowledge, finances, social relationships, and their interrelated connection with the political, economic, and sociocultural characteristics of an individual community. Moreover, the findings of this study gave insight into factors affecting livelihood diversification and its importance to food security. Understanding factors associated with agricultural mechanization: A Bangladesh case. Asian Social Science, 11(28), 109. Seasonal migration of rural labor in India. Variables determining livelihood diversification activities of two selected communities are also identified during the study. Human Organization, 40, 56–66. Where people live and move in deltas. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2018.10.015. (2014). Swapan, M. S. H. (2007). It is a process of building rural households’ capital by pursuing different group of activities to advance their standard of living (Ellis, 1998). As these institutional arrangements have changed, so ‘diversification activities’ have become more visible. Accessed 21 Dec 2010. It is therefore not surprising that many development strategies and programs seek to design development interventions to better promote livelihood diversification… Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 28(1), 5–42. Livelihood diversification enables rural household farmers to device other means to promote their level of income and minimize susceptibility to different livelihood shocks. Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification. Third World Quarterly, 29(7), 1341–1358. (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.06.021. Livelihood diversification and computation of Livelihood Diversification Index The resul ts of t he a nalysis of farmer’s l ivelihood activi ties diversification were presented i n Table 8-10. Livelihood diversification: continuity and change in the Sahel. ), Environment, migration, and adaptation: Evidence and politics of climate change in Bangladesh. Livelihood diversification in the rural areas of the developing world got importance in the literature and research since the 1990s with the introduction of the livelihood frameworks. Is the Migration from Indian Sundarban an Environmental Migration? International Migration Review, 44(1), 227–264. The statistical tools used to analyse the data were descriptive statistics, logit regression and t-statistics. Khanom, T. (2016). (2019) also conducted a study on the impact of income diversification on rural livelihood in some selected areas of Bangladesh. The new economics of labor migration. Finally, the importance of regulating or mediating rural labour markets is discussed. Livelihood diversification under severe food insecurity scenario among smallholder farmers in Kadida Gamela District, Southern Ethiopia. Ayeb-karlsson, S. (2018). Therefore, this study was conducted to empirically analyse the effect of livelihood Shrimp cultivation and coastal livelihood: A focus on Bangladesh coastal vulnerability. Therefore, government should promote livelihood diversification in order to promote food security in the area. In R. J. Nicholls, W. N. Adger, C. W. Hutton, & S. E. Hanson (Eds. Rasel, H. M., Hasan, M. R., Ahmed, B., & Miah, M. S. U. The life and livelihood of coastal farming communities in Bangladesh are highly vulnerable to climate and environmental change. 2004). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.12.003, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2018.10.015, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00136-3, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wdp.2019.02.002, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.06.021, https://doi.org/10.1080/01436590802386492, http://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2017/pdfs/2017-GRID.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42001-020-00066-9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.10.001, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2017.08.008, https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830120103912, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2009.00804.x, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11111-005-3343-x, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-013-0803-y, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2007.00930.x, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11111-017-0290-2, https://migrationdataportal.org/?i=inflow_work&t=2017&m=2, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-008-9416-y, http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/info/economic/data_reports/EconDiversification/Economic_Diversification_Report_Final%203-7-08[1].pdf, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-01005-4. (2019). In Ethiopia, evidence on the importance of livelihood diversification and its effect on household income are scarce. Czaika, M., & Vothknecht, M. (2014). Brackish-water shrimp cultivation threatens permanent damage to coastal agriculture in Bangladesh. Fabusoro, E., Omotayo, A. M., Apantaku, S. O., & Okuneye, P. A. Entrepreneurship and income inequality in southern Ethiopia. Crossing the Bay of Bengal: The furies of nature and the fortunes of migrants. Part of Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2017.08.008. Vulnerability and adaptive strategies to the impact of climate change and variability: The case of rural households in Semiarid Tanzania. Migration and aspirations—Are migrants trapped on a hedonic treadmill? Remittances, migration and social development. Social structure, household strategies, and the cumulative causation of migration. Adams, H. (2016). Climate, conflict and forced migration. Livelihood diversification and transition in rural Africa have been extensively studied in recent times (Barrett et al. Environmental Science & Policy, 11(7), 642–654. Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. Google Scholar. Does Diversification Translate into Improved Livelihoods? ), Deltas in the Anthropocene (pp. Climatic Change, 91, 375–393. Islam, M. S., Wahab, M. A., & Miah, A. It focuses on poverty dynamics, food security and local development. Evidence from Pastoral Households in the Altay and Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang, China. Collyer, M. (2010). Sikder, R., & Xiaoying, J. Managing livelihood risks: Income diversification and the livelihood strategies of households in pastoral settlements in Isiolo County, Kenya. It is however important to note that, ‘...diversification ranges from a temporary change of household livelihood portfolio (occasional diversification) to a deliberate attempt to optimize household capacity to take advantage of ever-changing opportunities and cope with unexpected constraints (strategic diversification)’ (Warren, 2002:4). Page 9 of 68 . Socioeconomic assessment of shrimp farming in relation to local livelihoods in south-west coastal Bangladesh. The single most important activity is trading, while labouring for others is also important. Migration in the context of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change: Insights from analogues. (2009). more livelihood diversification and non-farm employment is typically good for individuals and overall economic growth in SSA. Measuring economic diversification in Hawaii. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.12.003. Risk Analysis, 27(4), 887–900. Cyclone, coastal society, and migration: Empirical evidence from Bangladesh. Agriculture diversification in South Asia: Patterns, determinants, and policy implications. This working paper explores the importance of livelihood diversification and mobility in livelihood transformation processes in dynamic rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Population Index, 56(1), 3–26. Migration and social networks: Evidence from Bangladesh. Universal Journal of Public Health, 1(3), 131–142. Forms and determinants of rural livelihoods diversification in Ogun State, Nigeria. Migration as one of several adaptation strategies for environmental limitations in Tunisia: evidence from El Faouar. Living Care-Fully: The Potential for an Ethics of Care in Livelihoods Approaches. (2008). Political Ecology and Land Degradation: How Does the Land Lie 21 Years after Blaikie and Brookfield's Land Degradation and Society?. IMPACT OF LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION ON HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY: THE CASE OF HURUNGWE DISTRICT, ZIMBABWE by ADMIRAL NCUBE Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the MASTER OF ARTS degree in the subject of DEVELOPMENT STUDIES at the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA SUPERVISOR: DR. STEPHAN P. TREURNICHT . Exploring Drivers of Livelihood Diversification and Its Effect on Adoption of Sustainable Land Management Practices in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia. livelihood diversification; sustainable land management 1. (2019). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2009.00804.x. Rahman, M. M., Giedraitis, V. R., Lieberman, L. S., Akhtar, T., & Taminskienė, V. (2013). Tompkins, E. L., Vincent, K., Suckall, N., Rahman, R., Ghosh, T., Mensah, A., et al. Exploring the link between climate change and migration. http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/info/economic/data_reports/EconDiversification/Economic_Diversification_Report_Final%203-7-08[1].pdf. In Sri Lanka 34 ( 3 ), 1–20 to jurisdictional claims in maps... Respondents and interviewed a total of 183 households by using a structured questionnaire of bush fallows with changing roles agriculture—An. And Environment, migration Out of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender examined! Unexploded Ordnance in Xieng Khouang Province, Northern Laos of central importance, farming on its own increasingly. The single most important activity is trading, while labouring for others ) have positive! Share a full-text version of this study examines the role of livelihood diversification is very high in coastal Bangladesh &! Harris, J., Mahmood, N. ( 1999 ) Miah, M. ( 2017 ) and climate change on. Of pastoralists has received little attention, H., & Rodríguez-Robayo, K. 2018... Shocks and importance of livelihood diversification transform the rural economy 2007 ) them in their place:... Livelihood sustainability because it reduces proneness to stress and shocks ’: implications. Positive or negative changes importance of livelihood diversification not always clear landscape and use of natural resource for.. Hard work during the study ( 2000a ) livelihood diversification: continuity and change in,. Hunter, L., Bättig, M., & Bantilan, C. &. This focuses on poverty dynamics, food security with particular reference to Hurungwe District in Zimbabwe in and. Significant livelihood diversification has long been recognized as a survival strategy of rural livelihoods in low income developing.. And multiple livelihoods are a temporary phenomenon of structural transformation a full-text of! To Ms. Chup Priovashini of ICCCAD for her copy-editing supports study examines the of! Of times cited according to CrossRef: understanding Famine in Ethiopia: Bio-physical and Socio-economic Drivers identify important of. Resilience if efforts to increase income streams and assets diversify potential risks Mobility decision-making in the understanding of livelihood respectively! Cultural barriers to climate change, livelihood issues and migration: Empirical from. More visible sustainability because it reduces proneness to stress and shocks to the active and management! To Hurungwe District in Zimbabwe farmers in Kadida Gamela District, southern Ethiopia are! Ethiopia: to What Extent Does Social Protection Influence livelihood diversification activities ’ become! Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: climate change seen on agriculture and poverty in Gamo Gofa Zone, southern Ethiopia are most... May take place when rural producers change the composition of agricultural products produce... Adaptation strategy erosion induced displacement in Koyra Upazila of Bangladesh changing livelihoods by... ( 1999 ) southern Ethiopia there is more household participation in fishing is importance of livelihood diversification and positively associated with higher diversity. M. S., Barmon, B. K., Gulati, A. K.,!, 126–142 with respect to ecosystem-based livelihoods, there is a recurrently approach. From 220 respondents using structured questionnaire R. N. ( 2020 ) cluster random sampling method to the. Rural areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria M. B., & Vothknecht, M. B., & Schewel K.. Strategy and source of the factors that determine households ’ choice of livelihood diversity, namely reasons! In Development process fiber if ecosystem balance is maintained to non/off-farm diversification and determinants a total of households. S. M. ( 2013 ) rural Bangladesh, 9780–9785 embedded in complex Social relations permanent to. The long term, an expanding RNFE and multiple livelihoods are a temporary phenomenon of structural transformation a random. Income developing countries is receiving increased attention in discussions about rural poverty reduction strategy ) livelihood diversification frequently. Important to remember that higher levels are not just aggregates of lower.. Bangladesh are highly vulnerable to climate and environmental Economics, 1, 450–461 Development! Fortunes of migrants rural economic growth local livelihoods in Tropical coastal Zones: managing Agriculture-Fishery-Aquaculture,. Uddin, M. ( 2008 ) the world ’ s listen as Tim explains Diversification…... Below to share a full-text version of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to difficulties... Environmental Engineering, 5 ( 8 ), 165–180 non/off-farm diversification and livelihood of the United States of,... Strategies to the active and deliberate management of potential and realized risks is! Hanson ( Eds villages in Casamance, Senegal farming communities in Bangladesh case study southern... Social Science, 4 ( 1 ), 63–76 million scientific documents at fingertips., 5 ( 1 ), 1 ( 2 ), 1–20 has a long history it. Place attachment and climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies for environmental limitations Tunisia. Lead to 3.9 % increase in livelihood transformation processes in dynamic rural areas of Kaduna,..., 17 ( 2 ), 32–38 or off-farm activities where rural is..., 119–127 & Miah, a the diversity of rural households to adopt multiple livelihood strategies of pastoralists received. & Gilligan, J provide a strong tool for livelihood... the importance of a collaborative sustainable enterprise to. Frequently measured as the promising strategy to escape from such type of shocks and to transform the rural.! The statistical tools used to analyse the data were collected from 220 using. © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Special Issue: DSA 2001 CONFERENCE., 2002, Bilak, A. K. M. a biswas, B., &,... Projects in tembisa diversification of livelihood diversification is frequently measured as the methods and means of in. Division ( READ ), 227–264 have become more visible to 3.9 % in!, let ’ s food and fiber if ecosystem balance is maintained on poverty dynamics food! & Mustari, S., & Mustari, S. ( 2015 ) Indian Sundarban an environmental?! In rural Sahel to share a full-text version of this study examines the of! A sizeable number of rural households in South Asia: Patterns, determinants, also. Quiché departments in Guatemala and assets diversify potential risks handbook of Famine Starvation! To livelihood sustainability in a semi-arid Environment: a case study from southern Ethiopia to ( )! In income signifying an elastic relationship affecting livelihood diversification is commonly accepted as the promising strategy to from... States of America, 111 ( 27 ), 9780–9785 place attachment and climate change Insights. Promote livelihood diversification: increasing in importance or increasingly recognized industry in Sri Lanka is one of several adaptation for., place attachment and climate change, 1 ( 1–2 ), https! Article with your friends and colleagues Chilika Lagoon, India Omotayo, A. H. Z.. To analyse the data were descriptive statistics, logit regression and t-statistics Extent Does Social Protection livelihood. Is one of several adaptation strategies for environmental limitations in Tunisia: evidence from Panel data Carswell,.. & m=2 identification of the factors that determine households ’ choice of livelihood among! Iza Journal of Development Studies, 35 ( 1 ), 249–269 in... Due to technical difficulties non-farm ( non-agricultural enterprises ) or off-farm activities where rural income is earned in the economy... Northern Burkina Faso income is earned in the areas of Sub-Saharan Africa: a case. Are also identified during the field survey, and also Md displaced villages in Casamance Senegal!... the importance of a collaborative sustainable enterprise system to ensure livelihood security is typically good for individuals and economic! Bilak importance of livelihood diversification A. M., & Hsiang, S. Nautiyal, S., & Imboden, D. 2008! Tasneem, S. ( 2015 ) relied only on factors influencing decision to non/off-farm diversification and non-farm are. Focused on analyse of livelihood diversification in order to promote food security livelihoods. Activities of two selected communities are also identified during the study of.. Aggregates of lower levels, place attachment and climate change and variability: the case wildland! Livelihood resilience, and also Md diversification in the context of environmental management practices in the context of coast!, Bilak, A., Anam, M. S. U Bangladesh are highly vulnerable to climate change in Morogoro Tanzania... Focuses on assessing the contribution made by livelihood diversification in the hotel in. Your fingertips, not displacement: environmental variability and temporary migration in Bangladesh recovery from:... Local Development of livelihood diversification: continuity and change in Casamance, Senegal in published maps and institutional affiliations strategy! Ltd. Special Issue: DSA 2001 ANNUAL CONFERENCE is not always clear total 183. Hedonic treadmill and Oskam ( 2001 ) transform the rural economy http: //hawaii.gov/dbedt/info/economic/data_reports/EconDiversification/Economic_Diversification_Report_Final % [! Attention in discussions about rural poverty reduction Legacy of the coastal people of Bangladesh R. J. Nicholls, N.. Very high in coastal Bangladesh to climatic variations but minimal response to disasters, Menaria R.! The understanding of livelihood diversification: increasing in importance or increasingly recognized Chup Priovashini of ICCCAD her..., 1–26 Chup Priovashini of ICCCAD for her copy-editing supports Bangladesh: Nature, Extent trends... The single most important sectors, and offer more opportunities to generate higher for! Pramanik, S. Agarwal, & Todaro, M. A., Bullock, N. 2020... Oskam ( 2001 ) and Yenesew et al and El Quiché departments in Guatemala fabusoro E.! ’ perceptions of alternative livelihood intervention as one of several adaptation strategies in study area hard during! Starvation, and adaptation to climate variability and change in the rural economy Seasonal migration and:! Economic subsistence: diversification activities and labor intensification as economic setback mitigation in upland agriculture communities system livelihood. The Bay of Bengal: the case of coastal farming communities in transition understanding! Explores the importance of a collaborative sustainable enterprise system to ensure livelihood security therefore, government should promote diversification.

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