The findings underscore the importance of human capital investment and related support services for improving the pastoralist capacity to manage risk through welfare-enhancing diversified income portfolio adoption. The single most important activity is trading, while labouring for others is also important. Migration and Development, 1, 37–41. (2020). The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. (Unpublished). Economic Development and Cultural Change, 36(3), 465–481. an evaluation of five income generating projects in tembisa sustainable livelihood approaches: the future for income generating projects in urban areas? The importance of livelihood diversification activities in improving economic condition of rural farmers of the two communities is studied. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems. With respect to ecosystem-based livelihoods, there is more household participation in fishing and seaweed farming, but it varies from village to village. Article Bernados, S., Jr. (2019). 153–177). Migration and sustainable livelihoods: A critical review of the literature. Several issues have received attention during the late nineties, when various studies verifying the diversity of rural livelihood strategy Pramanik, S., Deb, U., & Bantilan, C. (2014). Migration, remittances, and the family. Hunter, L. M. (2005). Decisions on livelihood strategies may invoke natural-resource based activities, non-natural resource based and off-farm activities, migration and remittances, pensions and grants, intensificationversus diversification,and short-term versus long-term outcomes, some of which may compete. (2014). Sustainable livelihoods and livelihood diversification. According to (12), diversification contributes positively to livelihood sustainability because it reduces proneness to stress and shocks. The Dynamics of Livelihood Diversification in Ethiopia Revisited: Evidence from Panel data. A sizeable number of rural households in South Africa work two or more jobs to generate more income. Asian Profile, 47(3), 195–219. Climate change and migration: A case study from rural Bangladesh. (2020). Masud-All-Kamal, M. (2013). The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. First, let’s listen as Tim explains Livelihood Diversification… This is a natural starting point for poor rural producers with low levels of capital, who may be able to restructure their production mix more easily than to … This paper sets out to explore the links between livelihood diversification and access to natural resources, and it does this bearing in mind the need to make micro-macro policy links between local level rural livelihoods and national level poverty reduction efforts represented by Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). (2020). 34. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(27), 9780–9785. 114–116). The possibilities of bush fallows with changing roles of agriculture—An analysis combining remote sensing and interview data from Sudanese drylands. Results from a household survey show that participation in fishing is common and positively associated with higher occupational diversity and more agricultural activities. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Livelihood diversification in the rural areas of the developing world got importance in the literature and research since the 1990s with the introduction of the livelihood frameworks. Rahman, S., Barmon, B. K., & Ahmed, N. (2011). Keeping them in their place’: The ambivalent relationship between development and migration in Africa. The relationship between fishing, livelihood diversification and poverty was investigated in the lower Mekong basin, in Laos, where fishing forms an important, but usually secondary part of rural livelihoods. Ample studies conducted about livelihood diversification in rural Ethiopia were limited to determinants and measuring its extent rather than investigating how it influences other equally important welfare outcomes like food security. (2002). Livelihood diversification among rural households in developing countries as a research topic has received quite some attention in the development economics literature (Damite and Negatu, 2004; Ellis, 2000). (2008). Carling, J. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Asian Journal of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities, 3(7), 165–180. The result generated through review may be important for development practitioners, researchers and policy makers. The effects of climate change on agriculture and poverty in coastal Bangladesh. (2000a) livelihood diversification is a process by which ... 2001). Finally, the study highlighted the importance of continued commitment on the part of policy-makers and local administrators to support the development of non-farm and off-farm livelihood sources through availing credit services, skill training and, above all, educating the community. Mertz, O., Mbow, C., Reenberg, A., & Diouf, A. The authors are grateful to Apurba Roy of Department of Economics, the University of Barisal, for his valuable comments on the earlier versions of this manuscript. From a livelihood perspective, it’s important to remember that higher levels are not just aggregates of lower levels. (2012). The diversity of rural livelihoods in low income developing countries is receiving increased attention in discussions about rural poverty reduction. 2. Environmental Management, 43(5), 804–816. Working paper-South Asian network for development and environmental economics (SANDEE) (pp. Joshi, P. K., Gulati, A., Birthal, P. S., & Tewari, L. (2004). Thisstudy focused on analyse of livelihood diversification by farming households in Kachia, Kagarko and Jaba Local Government areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Read "Livelihood diversification: increasing in importance or increasingly recognized? Stark, O. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (2011). World Development Perspectives, 13, 1–9. Aryal, J. P., Rahut, D. B., Maharjan, S., & Erenstein, O. Furthermore, fisheries and tourism are the most important sectors, and offer more opportunities to generate higher income for households. (1997). ‘The war whose bullets you don't see’: Diamond digging, resilience and Ebola in Sierra Leone. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 4(1), 35–40. Marine Policy, 43, 208–216. Liu, H. (2018). Farmers’ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Gender & Development, 19(1), 23–38. Subscription will auto renew annually. Mistri, A., & Das, B. Environ Dev Sustain (2020). de Haas, H. (2010). In conclusion we consider private and public investment flows into the RNFE and the need for state intervention to support ideals of spatially equitable growth. Authors are thankful to Mr. Palash Mallick and Mr. Biplob Das for their hard work during the field survey, and also Md. Farming, small-scale mining and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa: A critical overview. Politics and Policies in Upper Guinea Coast Societies. Bennet, K., Bilak, A., Bullock, N., Cakaj, L., & Clarey, M. (2017). Migration and development: A theoretical perspective. Livelihood diversification has long been recognized as a risk management strategy and source of resilience. In this literature, diversification is frequently measured as the degree to which activities are dispersed among different categories. The impact of livelihood diversification varies from negative effects - the ‘withdrawal of critical labor from the family farm’ to positive effects - the ‘alleviation of credit constraints and a reduction in the risk of innovation’. Numerical simulation of marine internal wave dynamics based on functional analysis. Goswami, M., & Nautiyal, S. (2020). However, identification of the factors that determine households’ choice of livelihood strategies of pastoralists has received little attention. Migration and development migration and development in low-income countries: A role for destination country policy? The concept revolves around resources such as land/property, crops, food, knowledge, finances, social relationships, and their interrelated connection with the political, economic, and sociocultural characteristics of an individual community. Moreover, the findings of this study gave insight into factors affecting livelihood diversification and its importance to food security. Understanding factors associated with agricultural mechanization: A Bangladesh case. Asian Social Science, 11(28), 109. Seasonal migration of rural labor in India. Variables determining livelihood diversification activities of two selected communities are also identified during the study. Human Organization, 40, 56–66. Where people live and move in deltas. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2018.10.015. (2014). Swapan, M. S. H. (2007). It is a process of building rural households’ capital by pursuing different group of activities to advance their standard of living (Ellis, 1998). As these institutional arrangements have changed, so ‘diversification activities’ have become more visible. Accessed 21 Dec 2010. It is therefore not surprising that many development strategies and programs seek to design development interventions to better promote livelihood diversification… Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 28(1), 5–42. Livelihood diversification enables rural household farmers to device other means to promote their level of income and minimize susceptibility to different livelihood shocks. Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification. Third World Quarterly, 29(7), 1341–1358. (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.06.021. Livelihood diversification and computation of Livelihood Diversification Index The resul ts of t he a nalysis of farmer’s l ivelihood activi ties diversification were presented i n Table 8-10. Livelihood diversification: continuity and change in the Sahel. ), Environment, migration, and adaptation: Evidence and politics of climate change in Bangladesh. Livelihood diversification in the rural areas of the developing world got importance in the literature and research since the 1990s with the introduction of the livelihood frameworks. Is the Migration from Indian Sundarban an Environmental Migration? International Migration Review, 44(1), 227–264. The statistical tools used to analyse the data were descriptive statistics, logit regression and t-statistics. Khanom, T. (2016). (2019) also conducted a study on the impact of income diversification on rural livelihood in some selected areas of Bangladesh. The new economics of labor migration. Finally, the importance of regulating or mediating rural labour markets is discussed. Livelihood diversification under severe food insecurity scenario among smallholder farmers in Kadida Gamela District, Southern Ethiopia. Ayeb-karlsson, S. (2018). Therefore, this study was conducted to empirically analyse the effect of livelihood Shrimp cultivation and coastal livelihood: A focus on Bangladesh coastal vulnerability. Therefore, government should promote livelihood diversification in order to promote food security in the area. In R. J. Nicholls, W. N. Adger, C. W. Hutton, & S. E. Hanson (Eds. Rasel, H. M., Hasan, M. R., Ahmed, B., & Miah, M. S. U. The life and livelihood of coastal farming communities in Bangladesh are highly vulnerable to climate and environmental change. 2004). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.12.003, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2018.10.015, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00136-3, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wdp.2019.02.002, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.06.021, https://doi.org/10.1080/01436590802386492, http://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2017/pdfs/2017-GRID.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42001-020-00066-9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.10.001, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2017.08.008, https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830120103912, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2009.00804.x, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11111-005-3343-x, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-013-0803-y, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2007.00930.x, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11111-017-0290-2, https://migrationdataportal.org/?i=inflow_work&t=2017&m=2, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-008-9416-y, http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/info/economic/data_reports/EconDiversification/Economic_Diversification_Report_Final%203-7-08.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-01005-4. (2019). In Ethiopia, evidence on the importance of livelihood diversification and its effect on household income are scarce. Czaika, M., & Vothknecht, M. (2014). Brackish-water shrimp cultivation threatens permanent damage to coastal agriculture in Bangladesh. Fabusoro, E., Omotayo, A. M., Apantaku, S. O., & Okuneye, P. A. Entrepreneurship and income inequality in southern Ethiopia. Crossing the Bay of Bengal: The furies of nature and the fortunes of migrants. Part of Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2017.08.008. Vulnerability and adaptive strategies to the impact of climate change and variability: The case of rural households in Semiarid Tanzania. Migration and aspirations—Are migrants trapped on a hedonic treadmill? Remittances, migration and social development. Social structure, household strategies, and the cumulative causation of migration. Adams, H. (2016). Climate, conflict and forced migration. Livelihood diversification and transition in rural Africa have been extensively studied in recent times (Barrett et al. Environmental Science & Policy, 11(7), 642–654. Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. Google Scholar. Does Diversification Translate into Improved Livelihoods? ), Deltas in the Anthropocene (pp. Climatic Change, 91, 375–393. Islam, M. S., Wahab, M. A., & Miah, A. It focuses on poverty dynamics, food security and local development. Evidence from Pastoral Households in the Altay and Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang, China. Collyer, M. (2010). Sikder, R., & Xiaoying, J. Managing livelihood risks: Income diversification and the livelihood strategies of households in pastoral settlements in Isiolo County, Kenya. It is however important to note that, ‘...diversification ranges from a temporary change of household livelihood portfolio (occasional diversification) to a deliberate attempt to optimize household capacity to take advantage of ever-changing opportunities and cope with unexpected constraints (strategic diversification)’ (Warren, 2002:4). Page 9 of 68 . Socioeconomic assessment of shrimp farming in relation to local livelihoods in south-west coastal Bangladesh. The single most important activity is trading, while labouring for others is also important. Migration in the context of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change: Insights from analogues. (2009). more livelihood diversification and non-farm employment is typically good for individuals and overall economic growth in SSA. Measuring economic diversification in Hawaii. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.12.003. Risk Analysis, 27(4), 887–900. Cyclone, coastal society, and migration: Empirical evidence from Bangladesh. Agriculture diversification in South Asia: Patterns, determinants, and policy implications. This working paper explores the importance of livelihood diversification and mobility in livelihood transformation processes in dynamic rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Population Index, 56(1), 3–26. Migration and social networks: Evidence from Bangladesh. Universal Journal of Public Health, 1(3), 131–142. Forms and determinants of rural livelihoods diversification in Ogun State, Nigeria. Migration as one of several adaptation strategies for environmental limitations in Tunisia: evidence from El Faouar. Living Care-Fully: The Potential for an Ethics of Care in Livelihoods Approaches. (2008). Political Ecology and Land Degradation: How Does the Land Lie 21 Years after Blaikie and Brookfield's Land Degradation and Society?. IMPACT OF LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION ON HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY: THE CASE OF HURUNGWE DISTRICT, ZIMBABWE by ADMIRAL NCUBE Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the MASTER OF ARTS degree in the subject of DEVELOPMENT STUDIES at the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA SUPERVISOR: DR. STEPHAN P. TREURNICHT . Exploring Drivers of Livelihood Diversification and Its Effect on Adoption of Sustainable Land Management Practices in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia. livelihood diversiﬁcation; sustainable land management 1. (2019). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2009.00804.x. Rahman, M. M., Giedraitis, V. R., Lieberman, L. S., Akhtar, T., & Taminskienė, V. (2013). Tompkins, E. L., Vincent, K., Suckall, N., Rahman, R., Ghosh, T., Mensah, A., et al. Exploring the link between climate change and migration. http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/info/economic/data_reports/EconDiversification/Economic_Diversification_Report_Final%203-7-08.pdf. 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Oskam ( 2001 ) and Yenesew et al and El Quiché departments in Guatemala fabusoro E.! ’ perceptions of alternative livelihood intervention as one of several adaptation strategies in study area hard during! Starvation, and adaptation to climate variability and change in the rural economy Seasonal migration and:! Economic subsistence: diversification activities and labor intensification as economic setback mitigation in upland agriculture communities system livelihood. The Bay of Bengal: the case of coastal farming communities in transition understanding! Explores the importance of a collaborative sustainable enterprise system to ensure livelihood security therefore, government should promote diversification.